Skin acts as our first line of defense against pathogens, environmental pollutants and various chemical insults. Let’s look at the cellular and molecular factors in skin defense and what these mean for anti-aging.
The predominant cells in the outermost layer of the skin are called keratinocytes. These cells play a vital role in the formation of the cornified enveleope, (CE), an insoluble, rigid structure that is essential to skin’s barrier function. Molecular research has shown that keratinocytes and other skin cells communicate with each other via cytokines messaging systems. Cytokine messaging is how keratinocytes ensure proper CE formation.
WHAT ARE CYTOKINES?
Cell communication is the main function of cytokines
Cytokines are complex chemical messengers which are secreted by many cells in the body. The main function of cytokines is cell communication. Based on function, origin, and chemical structure, cytokines are classified into different groups such as interlukins (IL), tumor necrosis factors (TNF), chemokines and interferons (IFN), etc. Each cytokine has its own specific function and importance. Depending on the target cells, cytokines have different effects on different cells and can have a variety of consequences.
WHAT ROLE DO CYTOKINES PLAY IN SKIN HEALTH?
Cytokines are critical to normal skin homeostasis.
In the skin, cytokines are produced by non-keratinocyte cells, (like epithelial cells, dendritic epidermal cells, Merkel cells, Langerhans cells and melanocytes). Cytokines, which are secreted by skin cells, have many functions in addition to cell communication. For instance, Langerhans cells and keratinocytes respond to trauma, UV radiation, and bacterial products by producing primary cytokines, IL-1 or TNF.
EVIDENCE FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CYTOKINES
Cytokines can effectively rejuvenate skin
Natural or synthetically derived cytokines affect cell growth, division, differentiation and function while increasing pre-cursor cell production and differentiation into skin cells.
A study published in 2007 showed that after one month of treatment, the mixture of human growth factors and cytokines improved skin texture while significantly reducing periorbital (eyelid) and perioral (mouth) wrinkles.
Another study demonstrated a significant reduction in skin surface roughness (between 10% and 18% depending on the roughness parameter) after two months of twice-daily application of a cream combining growth factor and cytokines. These studies support the use of growth factors and cytokines in reducing signs of aging.
Alpha Blu's formulation includes human growth factors and cytokines. Studies support the use of growth factors and cytokines in reducing signs of aging.
Special Skin Serum improved skin by 23% better skin in just 2 weeks. Read the independent lab results here.